Project:Dating Privacy

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Dating Privacy aims to contribute with better development standards on dating apps that match the users' interests and protect their intimate life.

This collective is a social movement we have started after identifying several privacy risks we, as dating app users, are confronted with when looking for a date online: unwanted ads, harms resulting from incorrect profiling and predictions, the possibility of phishing and identity theft.

Dating Privacy is a collective formed by members coming from different countries and disciplines (mathematics, sociology, journalism, law, physics) and foreparts (academia, private, independent, citizen NGO).


Dating Privacy seeks to bring together users' practices with dating app companies to improve personal data collection and processing for the sake of privacy and data rights.

  1. Build a community with civil society about dating apps' personal data rights
  2. Raise awareness about personal data concerns in dating apps
  3. Facilitate users' personal data requests and analysis with tools for data literacy
  4. Create a cartography of personal data (wiki data structures extracted from the SARs)
  5. Develop research methodologies that respect personal data rights and contribute with end users' concerns

Contact and Online Activity

- E-mail
- Twitter @datingprivacy
- Meetings Online [1] Next one on December 9, 2021 at 19h (CET)
- Subscribe to our mailing list via our website
- Signal Group where you can debate, share knowledge, find help and help others -> Send us an email to join
- Website

Before joining please read our Code of Conduct [2] available at the bottom of this wiki.

Our collective is dedicated to providing a safe, friendly, respectful, comfortable environment and harassment-free experience for everyone. We do not tolerate harassment of collective members in any form. Collective members violating these rules may be sanctioned or expelled from the collective at the discretion of the collective's committee.

Past Events

05.10.2021, Vos données personnelles valent de l'or - Récupérez-les !
“Dating Privacy” Collective Launch: Our Plan To Change the ‘Data for Dates’ Paradigm – Friday 12th Feb at 7:30 pm (CET)
link to the presentation
Meetup event:
Linkedin event

Latest Dating Privacy News

06.10.2021 Les experts d’HestiaLabs offrent leurs compétences contre l’exploitation abusive des data

MyData Vaud

Recommended practices

1/ Start requesting your data via this link - Type in the box the dating app name you use
- Copy-paste the message and email address
- Send it and wait for your file

Why we should all request our personal data

2/ Already requested your data and received a file? Contribute with the wiki and map what your dating app collects:
3/ Are you an Android phone user? Download Exodus Privacy helps you to know which trackers and permissions are embedded in dating apps installed on your device.
4/ Configure your privacy settings on your dating app.
5/ Check out Mozilla privacy test on different dating apps
6/ Request deleting your data on a dating app when you stop using the app via the settings or sending an email. It is not enough to uninstall the app

Problems Identified


  1. Subscription rates change according to user demographic characteristics (ex. age on Tinder, sex on Hinge). Prices are invisible outside the app
  2. Sharing personal data with third parties which is not necessary for the app functioning (ex. for advertisement, see The Grindr case study) and for other purposes unknown (ex. the muslim app providing data to the american army)
  3. Background geolocation when the app is closed
  4. Automatic subscription renewal without notification, when there is a problem you have to contact the headquarter in another country
  5. Fake profiles created by the company (ex. ashley madison, Lovoo), buying profiles
  6. Between 10-20% of users find a partner in France, Switzerland and United States. Do users really get the outcomes they want from the app in exchange for providing their data? Are users retained in the app?
  7. The app ignores settings for presenting results (ex. show me only women and the user sees men)
  8. Users are banned without any reason given by the app
  9. One user said it has zero matches on Tinder
  10. Data leaks because of security breaches, the app did not protected the data properly
  11. Blocking or reporting harmful users that appear again in the victim's app results and the company does not provide any solution or justification


  1. Scams, phishing, fake profiles. Users are affected by malicious user behaviours so how are dating apps moderating this and protecting users via the analysis of their personal data?
  2. Rape and harassment: when "unmatching" on Tinder, the conversations and the profile are deleted for the victim. The victim loses the data to report, see

If you had a negative experience on a dating app, do not delete your account, take print screens of any conversation online and save the pictures shared with the person. Make a SAR [3] and contact us to help you recover your personal data if the company does not cooperate with you


  1. Jessica Pidoux works on revealing biases in Tinder's secretive matching algorithms.s Pidoux
  2. Paul-Olivier Dehaye obtained the first personal data file from Tinder along with author Judith Duportail Podehaye
  3. Marie-Pierre maps the dating app ecosystem and delves into dating app patents Genferei
  4. Frank has revealed privacy risks on Hinge and is currently being messed around by Hinge, Bumble and Tinder having asked for his data Frandrews
  5. Judith H. digs into regulation policies and howonline dating interacts with collective practices and communities

Ongoing Projects

Description planning in progress complete who
Geneva student projects x MP, JH, JP, PO
Tool development, collaboration with Graasp x JP
Prepare TRUSTS project x JP, JH, MP
Defining the project scope with Hestia x JP
Create and publish newsletter x JP, MP
Q&A for our website x JH
Data analysis workshop with Hestia x MP, JP, CF
Cours Transversal numérique UNIGE x MP, JP

Want to submit a project? We are open to new ideas! Write us at

Dating app list

  • Wiki

-->list of dating apps available on this wiki with ranking on apple and Android

-->list of dating apps available on wikidata

Top charts

top charts in France

top charts in CH

top charts in UK

Privacy Policies

Links can be found in the wiki

Princeton-Leuven Longitudinal Corpus of Privacy Policies. Front-end here: and the repository here:

“Out Of Control” – A Review Of Data Sharing By Popular Mobile Apps published in January 2020
see Technical report
Complaint letters



List of Match Group patents:
Tinder Patents:

  number={US20160154569 A1},
  author = {Rad, Sean and
            Carrico, Todd M. and
            Hoskins, Kenneth B and
            Stone, James C.},
  url = {}, 
  title = {Matching Process System And Method}, 
  author = {Carrico, Todd M. and
            Hoskins, Kenneth B and
            Rad, Sean and
            Stone, James C. and
            Badeen, Jonathan},
  url = {\%3DUS10203854B2}, 
  title = {Matching Process System And Method},
Match Group

Hinge: Brevet publié en 2013 puis abandonné, jamais délivré.

Facebook Dating:

Media Audiovisual

19.01.2022, France 2 L'amour sous algorithme
4 nov 2021, RTS Temps présent Les prédateurs sexuels chassent en ligne
4 janv. 2021 "Amour : la fin de l'engagement ? - Vox Pop - ARTE"
1 nov 2018, RTS Temps présent "Arnacoeurs, les escrocs de l'amour en ligne"

Media Press







to organize by date

Dating Privacy / Jessica Pidoux in Media and Conferences

30.12.2021 RTS, "On en parle" sur le sujet Série "Empreinte et emprise des réseaux sociaux" (4/5): les applications de rencontre
30.12.2021, The Conversation, « Concevoir des applications informatiques respectueuses des humains »




"Internet dans le boudoir, bArTeC" en préparation de la Valentin ce 1er février 17h30 à 20h (Paris), à La Gaîté Lyrique une discussion avec Judith Duportail, Antoine Péquignot et Jessica Pidoux
14.03.2022: Journée "Matching Love: subvertir et reproduire les normes de genre et de sexualités. Enjeux méthodologiques et féministes" *, avec Fred Pailler, sociologue, Post Doc, Université de Luxembourg, Jessica Pidoux, sociologue, Post Doc, Sciences Po, Paris, Marie Bersgtröm, Chargée de recherche à l'INED, Paris
19.01.2022, CNIL, Données personnelles et action collective avec PersonalData.IO et Hestia.AI par Jessica Pidoux et Marie-Pierre V.


  • "The metrics of online dating. A sociological study of matching algorithms ". Organisé par Bern Meetup.

Date: 20 avril 2021, de 18:00 à 20:00 UTC+2 - En ligne

Studies conducted scrapping dating app profiles


Tinder Annual report: Tinder on-going accusations. The Irish DPC case, also prices can vary according to users' age
My GDPR Complaint Against Tinder
Data Protection Commission launches Statutory Inquiry into MTCH Technology Services Limited (Tinder)

Data leaks and media scandals

Ashley Madison
Ashley Madison Leak No Big Deal? Think Again
Les résultats de Grindr révélés grâce au scandale Ashley Madison "Grindr a eu des revenus résultant à la fois des abonnements et de la publicité de près de 16 millions de dollars en 2012"

Here is a mirror for the OKCupid OSF Emil Kirkegaard dataset
Researchers Caused an Uproar By Publishing Data From 70,000 OkCupid Users
Controversy over OKCupid keynote at CHI 2018

Données privées : le site de rencontres Grindr mis en cause

LOVOO’s CEO Benjamin Bak resigns

En détournant l’app Happn, un hacker peut tracer votre chemin en temps réel

MobiFiends Barcelona Based dating app, user data breach

coffee meets Bagel 2019,Happy Valentine’s Day: your dating app account was hacked, says Coffee Meets Bagel

J crush 2019, Jewish dating app JCrush exposed user data and private messages

Donal Daters 2018, Donald Daters, a dating app for Trump supporters, leaked its users’ data

Meet Mindful 2021, Hacker leaks data of 2.28 million dating site users a dating site platform "for people who are into health, well-being, and mindfulness"

3somes, CougarD, Gay Daddy Bear, Xpal, BBW Dating, Casualx, SugarD, Herpes Dating 2020, Report: Breach Exposes 100,000+ Users on Niche Dating Apps

Fessées, menottes, bondage : les préférences sexuelles de 20 000 Français fuitent d’un forum Forum "Domi" reportedly related as subsidiary to self claimed fintech group BD Multimedia

Wikipedia source:

References with databases

Rosenfeld, Michael J., Reuben J. Thomas, and Sonia Hausen. 2019 How Couples Meet and Stay Together 2017 fresh sample. [Computer files]. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Libraries.
The OKCupid dataset: A very large public dataset of dating site users
- Full paper:


Tinder usage statistics:\#2
Pew Research Center (Feb 2020): The Virtues and Downsides of Online Dating. Retrieved from
Swiss Federal Statistical Office (Nov 2019): Families and Generations Survey. Retrieved from
INED France (2016)
Roughly six-in-ten online daters in the U.S. are concerned about data collection (May 29, 2020)
Survey in Germany (2017)

Academic References

2021, Hermine Lacour, Thèse doctorale: Les composants logiciels libres : détermination d’une méthode systématique relative à la distribution de composants, au regard des droits suisse, français et étasunien,
2021, Jessica Pidoux, thèse doctorale: Online Dating Quantification Practices: A Human-Machine Learning Process,

Technical references

An Evidence‐based Forensic Taxonomy of Windows Phone Dating Apps
Privacy Risks in Mobile Dating Apps
Technical report by mnemonic with the Norwegian consummer assoc showing data trading and GDPR compliance coded:
Tinder engineering blog:
TinVec explanation by Tinder's lead engineer:
Happn by exodus:
OkCupid engineering website: Evaluating Perceptual Image Hashes at OkCupid
How OkCupid organizes its multi-page React app
Lovoo engineering: dotGo 2016: Go machine learning at large scale
Lovoo github:
bbuzz 17: Anti-Spam and Machine learning at LOVOO
Digital methods project "Mapping data ecologies of the dating industry"

Data Literacy & Cooperative Tools

  1. realtalkforchange
  2. Tracking dick picks
  3. Pythus: un projet pour analyser les dangers des applications Android
  7. app metadata, permissions, ...
  8. Cookieviz, une dataviz en temps réel du tracking de votre navigation créé par le CNIL
  9. Tools to sample how many apps are in the Google and Play stores: "Google Play Store Scraper" is a simple tool to extract the details of individual apps, collect their related apps, retrieve app permissions, and retrieve a list of apps for a given keyword." ex:Google Play Store Scraper for login ask MP
  10. Doc example of how to read data exports
  11. The observatory of anonymity
  12. RDM kit: online guide and tools containing good data management practices applicable to research projects
  13. Lookup popular software licenses summarized at-a-glance
  16. Outil PIA- CNIL
  17. GDPR Data Portability
  18. APIs and tools to help Developers and DPOs to manage GDPR compliance at scale
  19. heroku
  20. open humans
  21. art tools:
  22. pithus:
  23. NYT viz:
  26. exodus privacy
  27. algorithmwatch -
  28. madada
  31. (In progress) a 1M EU project:
  32. TrackerControl
  34. NosLois
  35. Plateforme PARle - Canada
  36. Open terms archive : french gov tool - repo of versions of terms of services + notification service

List of apps for which we have obtained our data after a SAR

App Female* user Male* user Country file format
Adopteunmec 2 0 CH ; FR json
Badoo 1 0 CH json, zip, jpeg, txt
Bumble 1 0 CH html, zip (il y a quelques années)
happn 1 0 CH csv, zip, json, audio, photos (jpeg), gz
HER 1 0 CH different, jpeg,
Once 1 0 CH html, jpeg,
Parship 1 0 CH pdf, zip, csv, zip, text, photos,
PlanetRomeo 0 1 CH, json, yaml, jpeg,
Scruff 0 1 CH zip, ds_file, xml, csv, .md, image,
Grindr 0 1 CH zip, image,
Tinder 1 1 CH json, zip, html, jpeg 1 0 CH does not provide a file
WOO 0 0 -
  • We make the distiction between female and male users only as the majority of dating apps are designed according to a binary defintion of sex and the gender definitions are limited

Catalog describing data formats:


Description planning in progress complete who
*Map the data ecosystem x all
*Next meeting Define the case study with questions we want to analyse x
*Add downloads per app in the wiki. x
*Add ranking per app in CH, FR, UK the wiki. x J, MP
*Dating app list
*Add link to privacy policy x
*Add examples of silver dating apps (ref Le Monde) x MP
*Add examples of community apps x MP
*Check if policy documents are the same in different languages FR, EN, ... ( i.e TikTok doesn't)
*Organize media articles per data
*Develop tools for data literacy
*Define the methodology: data protection protocol and data collection and analysis method (EPFL Grasp tool or other?)
*Data analysis x
*Patent search and analysis MP?
*Privacy policies analysis
*Email us other ideas you have for contributing x all
*Publish launch video x J
*Communicate regularly X F
*Keep updated mailing list subscribers x
*Create a website x
*Document our tests in the apps
*Document SAR procedures x H
*Write ethical chart + privacy policy x H
Contact sexual victim's associations x J
*Check for subcontractors who wiil back-up the data H


  3. COESO
  4. EMILIE GOURD (limited to 5K)
  7. Data Trusts Initiative
  9. EU research:
  10. EU research and Cluster
  11. Digital Europe:
  13. innosuisse, eurostars
  14. starting grants 2022 février 2022 "Vous avez au moins 3 ans d’expérience dans la recherche"
  15. BRIDGE 6 déc, innovation proof of concept
  16. SNSF Swiss Postdoctoral Fellowships (SPF)
  17. AGORA 15 octobre
  18. Encouragement des projets 1 octobre

Code of Conduct

This code of conduct (coc) is based on Queer code's coc [4] distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike license. We adapted it to our context and thank Queer code for this work.

A primary goal of all the interactions and messaging groups of our collective Dating Privacy that refer to this Code of Conduct is to be inclusive to the largest number of contributors, with the most varied and diverse backgrounds possible. As such, we are committed to providing a respectful, friendly, safe, comfortable and welcoming environment for all, regardless of gender, sexual orientation, physical appearance, body size, technological choices, lack of scientific or technical knowledge, ability, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion (or lack thereof) and other personal conditions and choices.

This Code of Conduct outlines our expectations for all those who participate in our collective, as well as the consequences for unacceptable behavior.

We invite all those who participate in our discussions and projects to help us create learning-positive experiences for everyone.

Don’t be scared off by these rules! They are in place to protect us, not to intimidate people from interacting with each other in a positive manner.

This code of conduct is open to any suggestions and criticism: we are happy to improve it.

Expected Behavior

  1. Participate in an authentic and active way. In doing so, you contribute to the health and longevity of this collective.
  2. Exercise consideration and respect in your speech and actions.
  3. Attempt collaboration and understanding before confrontation and conflict.
  4. Refrain from demeaning, discriminatory, or harassing behavior and speech.
  5. Avoid making negative assumptions. If you aren’t aware of what someone’s intentions are, what someone's gender is, and you can’t figure it out, just ask clarification questions privately.
  6. Do not judge one's lack of knowledge or expertise. We all come from different disciplinary and cultural backgrounds and we are all rich in myriad experiences. It is common to not know everything, sometimes it can be a matter of language or communication.
  7. Rephrase your ideas or try to explain them in a different way so everyone can understand.
  8. Be patient. We are here to exchange and help each other but we do it in a volunteer basis so our availability is limited. More importantly, we privilege reflexive answers and not reactivity. And we might not have the answer to your question!
  9. Respect the plurality of points of view that makes us a strong collective. We discuss about sensitive subjects in relation to politics, technologies, health and sexuality that not everyone has the same opinion about it.
  10. Please ask before touching anyone at our events, like hugging. It’s easy, and the worst thing that happens is someone says no. You might not know what makes some people uncomfortable, but it does, so please ask first.
  11. Be mindful of your surroundings and the other participants. Alert Jessica Pidoux via email [5] if you notice a dangerous situation, someone in distress, or violations of this Code of Conduct, even if they seem inconsequential.

Unacceptable Behavior

Unacceptable behaviors include: intimidating, harassing, abusive, discriminatory, intentional misgendering, derogatory or demeaning speech or actions by any member or participant in our collective online, at all related events and in one-on-one communications carried out. Collective event venues may be shared with members of the public; please be respectful to all patrons of these locations.

Harassment includes:

  1. harmful or prejudicial verbal or written comments related to gender, trans status, sexual orientation, physical appearance, body size, technological choices, lack of technical knowledge, ability, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion (or lack thereof) and other personal conditions and choices
  2. trolling, i.e. sustained disruption of conversations, talks or other events
  3. nonconsensual photography or recording
  4. inappropriate use of nudity and/or sexual images in public spaces (including presentation slides)
  5. deliberate intimidation, stalking or following
  6. nonconsensual physical contact
  7. unwelcome sexual attention
  8. microaggressions, i.e. small, subtle, often subconscious actions that marginalize people from oppressed groups
  9. minimizing other people’s experiences

We have no discussion about how your behaviour was meant. What we care about is how it makes our participants feel. Please just respect that if one of the members is hurt by your behaviour, it is on you to change it or leave. Otherwise, collective leaders can decide on your expulsion.

Please also be aware that many of us have had to explain ourselves a lot and it’s not fair to assume that everybody has time and energy to give you explanations about how they feel. If you have questions, feel free to ask, there may be volunteers around to help you answer it or recommend some reading material.

Consequences of Unacceptable Behavior

Unacceptable behavior from any Dating Privacy collective member, including sponsors and those with decision-making authority, will not be tolerated. Anyone asked to stop unacceptable behavior is expected to stop immediately.

If a collective member engages in unacceptable behavior, the collective leaders may take any action they deem appropriate, up to and including a temporary ban or permanent expulsion from the collective without warning (and without refund in the case of a paid event or membership).

If you are subject to or witness unacceptable behavior, feel someone is being treated disrespectfully, or have any other concerns, point out the problem to any member you feel comfortable talking to as soon as possible. If you don’t know who to talk to, contact Jessica Pidoux via email [6].

If you feel you have been falsely or unfairly accused of violating this Code of Conduct, you should notify one of the event organizers, Jessica Pidoux via email [7] or in person with a concise description of your grievance. Your grievance will be handled in accordance with our existing governing policies.


We expect all collective members and participants (contributors, paid or otherwise; sponsors; and other guests) to abide by this Code of Conduct in all collective venues—online and in-person—as well as in all one-on-one communications pertaining to collective activities.